Ayn Rand and Silicon Valley

Travis Kalanick’s recent talks at YC Startup School and elsewhere, in which he often decries the interference of protectionist regulations that block competition in the taxi business, have some people talking about how Kalanick has been influenced by Ayn Rand and Objectivism.

Rand resonates, to a greater or lesser degree, for many in the tech startup world. Fred Wilson recommends Atlas Shrugged, and Brad Feld is a fan as well. Several less prominent investors and entrepreneurs, such as myself, are Objectivists.

The reason is that Objectivism and the Silicon Valley ethos have a lot in common.

Maker mentality

The Valley’s ideal is a productive maker who is driven by a creative vision, something he passionately believes in and wants to make real. This is exactly the essence of some of Rand’s best-known heroes, such as architect Howard Roark from The Fountainhead:

Austin Heller: “What in hell are you really made of, Howard? After all, it’s only a building. It’s not the combination of holy sacrament, Indian torture and sexual ecstasy that you seem to make of it.”

Howard Roark: “Isn’t it?”

The maker works long and hard over many years, triumphing over obstacles, setbacks, and naysayers—like Hank Rearden, the industrialist from Atlas Shrugged, did to create a new metal. Rand describes:

the nights spent at scorching ovens in the research laboratory of the mills—

—the nights spent in the workshop of his home, over sheets of paper which he filled with formulas, then tore up in angry failure—

—the days when the young scientists of the small staff he had chosen to assist him waited for instructions like soldiers ready for a hopeless battle, having exhausted their ingenuity, still willing, but silent, with the unspoken sentence hanging in the air: “Mr. Rearden, it can’t be done—”

—the meals, interrupted and abandoned at the sudden flash of a new thought, a thought to be pursued at once, to be tried, to be tested, to be worked on for months, and to be discarded as another failure—

—the moments snatched from conferences, from contracts, from the duties of running the best steel mills in the country, snatched almost guiltily, as for a secret love—

—the one thought held immovably across a span of ten years, under everything he did and everything he saw, the thought held in his mind when he looked at the buildings of a city, at the track of a railroad, at the light in the windows of a distant farmhouse, at the knife in the hands of a beautiful woman cutting a piece of fruit at a banquet, the thought of a metal alloy that would do more than steel had ever done, a metal that would be to steel what steel had been to iron—

—the acts of self-racking when he discarded a hope or a sample, not permitting himself to know that he was tired, not giving himself time to feel, driving himself through the wringing torture of: “not good enough… still not good enough…” and going on with no motor save the conviction that it could be done—

—then the day when it was done and its result was called Rearden Metal.

Going against the consensus

The virtue of independence—thinking for yourself—is the theme of The Fountainhead and a cardinal virtue of the Objectivist ethics. It’s also a part of the maker mentality: innovation comes from following one’s own judgment, not the herd. Fred Wilson says social proof is dangerous, while Brad Feld exhorts investors to make their own decisions.

In contrast to the makers, mere copiers like the Samwer brothers are looked down upon. In the Valley, you get more respect if you try an original idea and fail than if you copy an idea and succeed.

Rand’s basic conception of independence is having one’s primary orientation to realityto the facts; not to other people and their ideas. To succeed in entrepreneurship and especially in investing, though, you need to go farther. You need to be not only be right, but non-consensus right. I first heard that idea and that phrase from Mike Maples, but I heard a variant of it from Peter Thiel in his recent Stanford lectures on entrepreneurship, and from Reid Hoffman at a Pando Monthly event.

Creating more value than you capture

This one may come as a surprise to those who only know that Rand advocated “selfishness”. But Rand’s basic guideline for human relationships was what she called the trader principle: deal with others by trading value for value, by mutual consent to mutual advantage, never seeking nor granting the unearned, never sacrificing yourself to others nor others to yourself. In other words, seek only win-win relationships.

The maxim to “create more value than you capture” is a corollary. If you try to capture more than you create, you’re seeking the unearned. When you create more than you capture, you’re making sure that those you trade with are getting something out of the deal, too.

Playing the long game

Creating more value than you capture is part of a larger theme in the Valley: playing the long game.

To play the long game means to remember that the relationships and reputation you build need to last you a lifetime. Thus, we look down on those who screw over co-founders, employees, or investors; we admire those who honestly and bluntly admit mistakes. Reid Hoffman extols the value of “alliances built on trust and integrity”, saying that in the long run they are the most valuable.

The long-term mentality is also a key part of Objectivism. Rand’s ethics is based on the idea that to thrive and flourish, one must think and act long-range. The grubbing, short-term mentality is ultimately self-destructive. This is why a philosophy that advocates self-interest also demands ruthless honesty, integrity, and justice. Moral principles, Rand held, were the only way to grasp the long-range consequences of one’s actions and to make the right choices in the scope of one’s entire life.

Unlimited ambition

What I love most about Silicon Valley is the intense ambition that is a part of the culture—the drive to do great things, to achieve the extraordinary, to change the world. Our heroes are not martyrs; they are successful, happy, and often rich.

As Rand wrote in Atlas Shrugged, in a passage that could inspire any entrepreneur in his darkest days:

Do not lose your knowledge that man’s proper estate is an upright posture, an intransigent mind and a step that travels unlimited roads. Do not let your fire go out, spark by irreplaceable spark, in the hopeless swamps of the approximate, the not-quite, the not-yet, the not-at-all. Do not let the hero in your soul perish, in lonely frustration for the life you deserved, but have never been able to reach. Check your road and the nature of your battle. The world you desired can be won, it exists, it is real, it is possible, it’s yours.

That deep, abiding optimism, that sense of the grandeur of life and the world, is part of what drew me to Objectivism and what resonates with me so deeply. I think it’s what resonates with others in the startup community, too.

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  1. You only describe superficial similarities. If silicon valley was anything like Ayn Rand, then they surely wouldn’t be voting for Obama and the welfare state. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s1RxKW-P5V8

    • Espressolibertarian says:

      They might see that as the lesser of two evils. http://ergosum.wordpress.com/2006/10/31/objectivists-for-democrats/

    • The similarities are not superficial, but they are similarities in spirit and personality—not necessarily politics. Many in the tech community have a spirit of entrepreneurship but an ethics of altruism, which leads them to promote a welfare state. I was concentrating here on what we have in common.

      • Ilene Skeen says:

        Right on, Jason, the similarites are deep. In politics however, addtional factors come into play, which may give a clearer reason why the Silicon Valley enterpreneurs tend to support the left.

        In my experience, the Silicon Valley types abhor both cronyism and the religious mindset as anti-freedom. They tend to be live and let live people, socially liberal as well. Being socially liberal pushes the Silicon Valley enterpreneurs toward the left politically, since Republicans in control of the party have become rabidly anti-gay, anti-abortion, etc.

        In addition on the political right, the neo conservatives, the moral majority, none of those groups really understand the Silicon Valley entrepreneurs, nor do the right-wing groups care about them. They care about people in businesses they can understand, like doctors, contractors or restauranteurs, etc., i.e. people doing conventional businesses and conventional jobs. Being unrecognized by the right, building business which are beyond the right’s comprehension and beyond “God’s plan, also pushes the Silicon Valley enterpreneurs toward the left politically.

        Finally, in a show down between “your money or your life” which is the difference between what the Republicans offer and the Democrats offer in their programs, the obvious choice to the person who has not read Ayn Rand, or who has missed her point, is your life, since you can always make more money, but you only get one life.

  2. redguitar99 says:

    Ayn’s feelings about the role of govt are not surprising as she watched the govt in her homeland come and take her father’s business. Surely that was traumatic for a child to see. When discussing libertarianism, often the question comes up: Should I care about the welfare of my neighbor ? Is there any healthy role for altruism ? If you accept the validity of developmental studies (like Spiral Dynamics), it does appear that if 1) a person is wired for continual growth throughout their life, and 2) nothing too traumatic happens, you see a pattern that people do tend to develop concern for others and altruism at the higher stages. From the 1000 foot view, we can also see this in the progress from premodern to postmodern to integral. So I would not ignore Ayn’s psychological context when considering her philosophy.

  3. Jim Barcelona says:

    Thanks for posting this. Lots of the quotes resonate with what I’ve seen in the valley in terms of what people do and say. E.G. “the nights spent in the workshop of his home, over sheets of paper which he filled with formulas, then tore up in angry failure.” I also think the Silicon Valley ethos is steeped in Libertarianism, which also has lots of synergies with Rand’s philosophy. Nathaniel Branden, a disciple that “betrayed” her, pointed out that her philosophy utterly ignores psychological reality by encouraging emotional repression. Nathaniel Branden spent a great amount of his work as a therapist treating folks damaged by the fact that they couldn’t be Howard or Dagny. This also reminds me of lots of damaged people in the valley who are stunted emotionally. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nathaniel_Branden

    • If Branden thinks Objectivism encourages emotional repression—well, he should speak for himself. He’s wrong. Indeed, Objectivism says that your own happiness is the moral purpose of your life. In Atlas Shrugged, emotional repression was shown to be a mistake made by one of the heroes, Hank Rearden. He learned how not to repress and became happier for it.

      Some Objectivists get upset that they aren’t as productive as Rand’s entrepreneur heroes. Some entrepreneurs are upset that they’re not as successful as actual entrepreneurs such as Jobs or Zuck. The former isn’t Rand’s fault any more than the latter is Jobs’s or Zuck’s.

  4. bfeld says:

    Great post. You did a super job of capturing what I find powerful about The Fountainhead and Atlas Shrugged and did an excellent job of linking it to several deeply held beliefs of mine – “give before you get” and “play the long game.”

    I long ago stopped trying to make the linkage between Rand and what’s going on. There are two problems that I find a waste of time.

    1. The hard core objectivists who argue nuance around the philosophy.

    2. All of the people who embody the philosophy but can’t stand the black and white way it’s presented who argue against it or try to reject it.

    I don’t portray myself, nor do I subscribe to the notion, that I’m an objectivist. I reject the importance of labels like this and instead focus on the deeply held beliefs and values that I think matter. While there are plenty that appear in The Fountainhead and Atlas Shrugged, and many entrepreneurs (and others) can learn from them, I believe that like any religion or philosophy, you can benefit from pieces without having to subscribe to the whole. Which makes it even more powerful.

    • Thanks, Brad! Glad you liked it. I do consider myself an Objectivist, but I learned a long time ago not to pay too much attention to arguments that don’t interest me. As I learned from one of *your* great posts, that stuff is just “noise in the system,” and when it gets louder, I just go deeper on the things I really care about. :-)

  5. If you want to look to a practical application of Rand’s books, study Coase Theorem. It is as close as you can get.

  6. A memorable Part of Aynd Rand that cant be missed: “The PlayBoy Interview” 1964 : http://ellensplace.net/ar_pboy.html

  7. Meghna Verma says:

    Hi. The Co-founder of a French Startup, Bruno Walther, has a very interesting POV on how the data revolution and tech industry go hand in hand with Ayn Rand. Check it out here:


  8. […] company. We started with $20,000 that I ceaselessly harassed my parents for because I had just read The Fountainhead and bitcoin rang oh so true to […]

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